Report Book, 2019/00001 Stronger Partners Stronger Futures Discussion Paper 3: Reform options - Aboriginal cultural heritage management and the mineral exploration process
This paper sets out options for improving the native title system for mineral exploration in South Australia. The Department for Energy and Mining (DEM) would like your opinion on these options, which are set out in section 6. The questions asked in this discussion paper are the result of consultation on this issue over the past five years. In 2016, as a result of continuing concern raised by both native title groups and the mineral exploration industry (explorers) about the native title system as it applies to mining and exploration, DEM set up the Stronger Partners Stronger Futures program to consult with both groups about improving the system.
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Report Book, 2019/00002 An Alpine geologist for Santos exploration in the Great Artesian Basin May to December 1956.
In May 1956 Santos reactivated its exploration activity in the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) initiated by Dr Rudi Brunnschweiler in 1954. He was Chief Petroleum Consultant with the consulting firm Geosurveys of Australia Ltd which had been retained by the newly founded South Australian oil exploration company SANTOS Ltd to look after all its field operations. Geosurveys was owned and managed by renowned South Australian geologist Reginald (Reg) C. Sprigg who, at that stage,was primarily concerned in uranium exploration in the Northern Territory (Sprigg 1993). Shortly after he had founded the company, he engaged the Swiss geologist Dr Rudi O. Brunnschweiler to handle the petroleum side of the business. Rudi, as he was generally known, had flown a small single engine aircraft from Europe to Australia and, prior to him joining Sprigg, had worked extensively for the Bureau of Mineral Resources in the Carnarvon Basin in northwestern Australia. One of Rudi’s first efforts on behalf of Santos was an air and ground reconnaissance of the Oodnadatta region in 1954, resulting in a report on the area including a geological map and a cross section of the Western GAB.
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Report Book, 2019/00003 Geological Atlas of Officer Basin
The Officer Basin overlies approximately 375 000 square kilometres of the south central part of the Australian craton (Palfreyman, 1981). It is the third largest of the continent's onshore basins but, in spite of its size, is probably the least known and understood of the intracratonic settings. The lack of knowledge about the basin in large part reflects the poor infrastructure in the region and the general aridity of the environment (Plate 1). There are no made roads crossing the basin and only a small number of largely unmaintained single lane tracks. Because the region is extremely dry, there is little run off and almost no stream drainage. As a consequence the palaeo-stream network that drained into the Tertiary Eucla Basin to the south remains largely intact. This atlas brings together the latest geological ideas, incorporating earlier data gathered in the South Australian part of the basin, in an accessible form. The atlas consists of 30 plates covering a range of topics from topography and surface geology to water resources and potential field data as well as the architecture of the basin fill. The atlas has been arranged to present some of the more general features of the basin such as topography, geology, structure and water resources in the earlier plates whilst concentrating on details of the basin fill in later plates
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Report Book, 2019/00005 Stronger Partners Stronger Futures, Moving Ahead, Discussion Paper 2: Reform Options – Improve relationship building and cultural awareness in the mineral exploration process
This paper sets out options for improving the native title system for mineral exploration in South Australia. The Department for Energy and Mining (DEM) would like your opinion on these options. We will use your comments to determine the level of support for the options and whether they respect the rights and interests of both explorers and native title groups in mineral exploration. All parties have raised concerns about the current land access scheme in South Australia and generally agree that it could be improved. A key concern is how to encourage more effective engagement between native title groups, explorers and government, particularly for early engagement before exploration starts. In this paper we’re seeking your views on options to facilitate relationship building, cultural awareness and cultural competency between the parties and what administrative processes government could implement to support this engagement. We want to understand how any proposed reforms will work in practice within existing structures.
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Report Book, 2019/00006 Sedimentology of the late Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks of the Arckaringa Basin, South Australia
Late Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks of the Arckaringa Basin in northern South Australia include diamictite and sandstone units of the Boorthanna Formation that were deposited as lodgement till under fluvioglacial conditions. The clast size and matrix sedimentology suggest that the diamictite units were sourced from both continental icesheet and valley and/or ice tongue glaciers, a view which is in contrast to accepted models that do not consider multiple glacial influences in sediment deposition. The sandstone units of the Boorthanna Formation were deposited in meltwater streams at the final stage of deglaciation. The uppermost unit of the late Palaeozoic Arckaringa Basin, the Mount Toondina Formation, consists of carbonaceous sandstone and siltstone units. The interbedded nature of this unit as well as the sedimentology implies that the sedimentary rocks were deposited in an alternating lacustrine and fluvial setting. Comparison with the depositional model for temporally equivalent late Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks of the Troubridge Basin shows that the lowermost sedimentary rocks in both basins comprise lodgement till that was deposited via the action of icesheets and valley glaciers. The depositional processes in the two basins then became different so that sedimentary rocks within the Arckaringa Basin were being deposited in a deepening marine setting whilst fluvioglacial and glaciomarine sedimentary rocks were being deposited in the Troubridge Basin. The depositional environment of the Arckaringa Basin then moved to being terrestrial, and alternating lacustrine and fluvial sedimentary rocks were deposited. At this time the Troubridge Basin moved to a deepening glaciomarine environment.
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Report Book, 2019/00007 1959: Delhi-Frome-Santos Innamincka 1 – the era of Cooper Basin exploration is kindled.
Petroleum exploration in South Australia experienced new impetus when the Texan independent oil producer Delhi Taylor Oil Corp. joined Santos as a partner in 1958 (Sprigg, 1993). The deal between Delhi and Santos included the drilling of two deep exploration wells within the Delhi/Santos licence areas in South Australia and Queensland (Fig. 1). Delhi was to carry the cost of that venture and was also to act as the operator. A seismic reflection survey was carried out under contract by the seismic crew of the South Australia Department of Mines in 1958. It verified the results of our earlier surface mapping (Fig. 2) and proved beyond doubt that the hills and ranges north-east of Innamincka represented an enormous anticline and a prime drilling target. Thus, the decision to drill a wildcat well on that structure had already crystallised in the latter part of 1958.
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Report Book, 2019/00008 PACE Copper Gawler Craton Airborne Geophysical Survey, Region 9A, Childara – Enhanced geophysical imagery and magnetic source depth models.
his report presents the results of a study jointly conducted by the Geological Survey of South Australia and CSIRO Mineral Resources which aimed to enhance the expression of geological structure in geophysical images and to derive depth to magnetic source estimates over Region 9A of the Gawler Craton Airborne Survey; viz. all of the TARCOOLA 1:250k map sheet area, plus the northern half of the CHILDARA 1:250k map sheet area. The study was based on magnetic field data, acquired during the period 5 November 2017 to 2 May 2018 by this airborne magnetic and radiometric survey commissioned by the Geological Survey of South Australia, that have been combined with ground gravity data from the South Australian state gravity database.
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Report Book, 2019/00009 South Australian mineral resource production statistics for the six month ended 31 December 2018
This report presents detailed industry-derived statistics on the State's output and sales values of earth resource commodities realised during the six month period ended 31 December 2018, and compares the data with that returned for the previous six monthly period. The various specific commodities are broadly categorised under the headings of metallic minerals, energy, petroleum production, opal production, industrial minerals and construction materials (the latter including dimension stone, quarry products, sand products and clay products).
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Report Book, 2019/00010 Petroleum and Geothermal Energy Act compliance report 2018.
The Energy Resources Division (ERD) is responsible for administering the Petroleum and Geothermal Energy Act 2000 (PGE Act) and associated Regulations on behalf of the Minister for Energy and Mining . The PGE Act enables and regulates the exploration and development of regulated petroleum and geothermal energy resources for the benefit of South Australians. Since 2006, ERD has prepared an annual report on the division’s compliance monitoring activities and an overview of PGE Act licensees’ regulated activities and incident statistics. ERD’s compliance policy emphasises the importance of preventive measures to educate and facilitate a compliant industry, with escalation to persuasive and compulsive measures where necessary. Compliance monitoring activities occur through the life of a regulated activity: from the licence issue, planning and design of exploration and production activities and facilities, in-field surveillance of operations, through to audits of licensee management systems.. The key regulatory outcomes and activities undertaken during 2018 are listed below. -- Activities: Activity notifications are provided to the minister prior to the proposed commencement of any regulated activities. --Field inspections: Field surveillance trips were conducted across the Cooper–Eromanga, Arrowie, Otway and Telford basins. -- Fitness-for-purpose assessment: Section 86A of the PGE Act requires a fitness-for-purpose (FFP) assessment to be carried out for prescribed licences every 5 years in accordance with the Regulations. -- Co-produced water monitoring: The minister has been assigned a water allocation of 60 ML/d, under the water allocation plan for the Far North Prescribed Wells Area. -- Significant environmental benefit contributions: As a delegate for the South Australian Native Vegetation Council under the Native Vegetation Act 1991, ERD enforces the significant environmental benefit (SEB) obligations on licensees relating to vegetation clearances. -- Incidents: The PGE Act includes objectives pertaining to public safety, security of gas supply, and the protection of the natural environment and of the interests of other land users and landowners. -- Loss of containment incidents: The number of produced hydrocarbon and other loss of containment (LOC) events are shown in the chart provided - see report. The upstream pipeline (excluding transmission pipeline) LOC incident rates per 1,000 km per year are shown in the provided chart for 2009 to 2018. -- Root causes of incidents: Inadequate monitoring and inadequate maintenance are consistently the most common determined root causes of incidents reported to ERD.
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Report Book, 2019/00012 PACE Copper Gawler Craton Airborne Survey, Region 4A, Barton – enhanced geophysical imagery and magnetic source depth models
This report presents the results of a study jointly conducted by the Geological Survey of South Australia and CSIRO Mineral Resources which aimed to enhance the expression of geological structure in geophysical images and to derive depth to magnetic source estimates over Region 4A of the Gawler Craton Airborne Survey; viz. parts of the OOLDEA, NULLARBOR, BARTON and FOWLER 1:250k map sheet areas. The study was based on magnetic field data acquired during January-May 2017 by this airborne magnetic and radiometric survey commissioned by the Geological Survey of South Australia, that have been combined with ground gravity data from the South Australian state gravity database. The 2017-19 PACE Copper Gawler Craton Airborne Survey (GCAS) provides both higher resolution and more consistent mapping of the magnetic field than are available from previous coverage by multiple geophysical surveys of lesser extent. Advantages of the new survey data are quite evident upon inspection of the primary total magnetic intensity (TMI) data, but it is through the enhancement of that TMI data to assist in recovery of geological information that the advantages are most clearly expressed. Many of the enhancements presented in this report are necessarily of limited application to the TMI data previously obtained across the Gawler Craton area, mainly because of known numerous insufficiencies and imperfections in those data, and they would be hampered by the unavoidable effects of abrupt signal strength contrast that appear on passing between survey datasets acquired on different line spacings, flying heights or flight-line orientations. The GCAS data acquisition consistency and close line spacing therefore support higher resolution and more confident source depth mapping from the magnetic field data. Local magnetic field variations arise exclusively from ferromagnetic minerals which may only constitute of the order of 2% or less of the rock (even for what are considered strongly magnetised rocks), while lateral variations in geology which have no associated variation in magnetisation have no direct expression in the magnetic field imagery. In contrast, gravity data respond to variations in density, to which all components of the rock contribute. Gravity field variations therefore provide a complementary mapping of geology. Suitable combinations and contrasts of gravity and magnetic fields provide more diagnostic information about the subsurface than does the sum of the two fields processed and imaged independently. The output of this study is a collection of images and digital data products, downloadable herein, which have been generated to facilitate geological interpretation. The products are not themselves interpretive, but provide more direct access to interpretation than do directly measured datasets treated alone. These products, and in particular the magnetic source depth estimates, are designed to provide the genesis of a ‘live’ resource which can be progressively upgraded rather than simply being replaced when further studies are undertaken in the area, the depth solution database is added to, or when new drillhole information is reported. Notes: Includes, in Appendix 2, the senior author's 232 inversion model magnetic source depth solutions generated from 208 traverses over discrete anomalies discerned in the gridded GCAS TMI data (N.B. some traverses provided solutions from two adjacent anomalies).
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Report Book, 20019/00013 PACE Copper Gawler Craton Airborne Survey, Region 4B, Fowler : enhanced geophysical imagery and magnetic source depth models
This report presents the results of a study jointly conducted by the Geological Survey of South Australia and CSIRO Mineral Resources which aimed to enhance the expression of geological structure in geophysical images and to derive depth to magnetic source estimates over Region 4B of the Gawler Craton Airborne Survey; viz. the near-coast onshore parts of the NULLARBOR and FOWLER 1:250k map sheet areas. The study was based on magnetic field data acquired during January-May 2017 by this airborne magnetic and radiometric survey commissioned by the Geological Survey of South Australia, that have been combined with ground gravity data from the South Australian state gravity database. The 2017-19 PACE Copper Gawler Craton Airborne Survey (GCAS) provides both higher resolution and more consistent mapping of the magnetic field than are available from previous coverage by multiple geophysical surveys of lesser extent. Advantages of the new survey data are quite evident upon inspection of the primary total magnetic intensity (TMI) data, but it is through the enhancement of that TMI data to assist in recovery of geological information that the advantages are most clearly expressed. Many of the enhancements presented in this report are necessarily of limited application to the TMI data previously obtained across the Gawler Craton area, mainly because of known numerous insufficiencies and imperfections in those data, and they would be hampered by the unavoidable effects of abrupt signal strength contrast that appear on passing between survey datasets acquired on different line spacings, flying heights or flight-line orientations. The GCAS data acquisition consistency and close line spacing therefore support higher resolution and more confident source depth mapping from the magnetic field data. Local magnetic field variations arise exclusively from ferromagnetic minerals which may only constitute of the order of 2% or less of the rock (even for what are considered strongly magnetised rocks), while lateral variations in geology which have no associated variation in magnetisation have no direct expression in the magnetic field imagery. In contrast, gravity data respond to variations in density, to which all components of the rock contribute. Gravity field variations therefore provide a complementary mapping of geology. Suitable combinations and contrasts of gravity and magnetic fields provide more diagnostic information about the subsurface than does the sum of the two fields processed and imaged independently. The output of this study is a collection of images and digital data products, downloadable herein, which have been generated to facilitate geological interpretation. The products are not themselves interpretive, but provide more direct access to interpretation than do directly measured datasets treated alone. These products, and in particular the magnetic source depth estimates, are designed to provide the genesis of a ‘live’ resource which can be progressively upgraded rather than simply being replaced when further studies are undertaken in the area, the depth solution database is added to, or when new drillhole information is reported. Notes: Includes, in Appendix 2, the senior author's 272 inversion model magnetic source depth solutions generated from 228 traverses over discrete anomalies discerned in the gridded GCAS TMI data (N.B. some traverses provided solutions from two adjacent anomalies).
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Report Book, 2018/00001 Regolith hand specimen atlas for South Australia. - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy And Mining.
This regolith material hand specimen atlas displays 246 images of 212 regolith samples which have been collected over the last 30 years by the authors, present and past Geological Survey of South Australia (GSSA) staff and members of the Cooperative Research Centre for Landscape Environments and Mineral Exploration (CRC LEME). The atlas provides a broad overview of a wide variety of in situ and transported regolith located across South Australia, which have formed from rocks of possible Archean to Quaternary age. The atlas also includes regolith examples from adjacent states. It illustrates the composition, fabric, structure and stratigraphy – where applicable – of dominantly in situ regolith, as well as cases of regolith with mixed origin and/or complex overprinting. The atlas aims to be a teaching, guidance and look-up tool for geologists, explorers and other parties interested in regolith, but is far from representing all types of regolith materials occurring in SA. Where available, further references and links to publications are provided. The hand specimens are grouped and described – where applicable – by regolith materials grouped according to regolith terminology and classification developed in the CRC LEME (Pain et al., 2007; Pain, 2008). Each hand specimen has been photographed, in some cases multiple times. The regolith material hand specimen collection is physically stored in the South Australia Drill Core Reference Library at the Tonsley Precinct and can be viewed upon request. Some samples shown in this atlas are privately owned and do not form part of the actual specimen collection held at Tonsley. However, they have been included here as they show important types of regolith material found in the State, and hence complement the GSSA collection.
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Report Book, 2018/00002 Chevies or Cadillacs? The decisive year for oil search in South Australia. - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining.
By the end of 1956 Santos was still concentrating its efforts on locating an elusive oil pool at Wilkatana, in the Torrens Basin, about 45 km north of Port Augusta. Eighteen months after the first hydrocarbons had been encountered in the bore Wilkatana 1, a total of 18 holes had been drilled, but the results hadn’t really been encouraging (Wopfner 2010). The pattern drilling instigated by Reg Sprigg hadn’t produced any tangible results and it became apparent that the oil in the first well and the other shows in the Cambrian dolomite may have been remnants of a much older oil accumulation which had been de-roofed prior to the Tertiary, millions of years ago. Without any positive news, Santos shares went down and the board became somewhat concerned about the future
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Report Book 2018/00003 Summary and final report on pyrite, magnetite and hematite mineral geochemistry, South Australia. (includes samples from the Mineral Systems Drilling Program and Emmie Bluff IOCG prospect).- Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining
Sulfide and oxide trace element geochemical analyses have been conducted on more than 290 core chip samples collected from stored drill cores of 39 drillholes located across South Australia, as part of a collaborative project being conducted between the Centre for Ore Deposit and Exploration Science (CODES), University of Tasmania, and the Geological Survey of South Australia. The project aim was to analyse the mineral chemistry of pyrite, hematite and magnetite across a range of deposit styles in SA, and determine whether the technique could be used to provide insights into, and vector within, the various mineral systems. Results suggested that pyrite chemistry can be used to successfully distinguish between IOCG, hydrothermal breccia, MVT and sedimentary copper deposits. However, pyrite trace element compositions from both orogenic gold and Au-magnetite skarn deposits partially overlap with those present in these other deposit styles. Magnetite, although present in fewer of the deposit types compared to pyrite, was nonetheless able to yield compositional data that accurately discriminate between IOCG and Au-magnetite skarn deposits. A case study was made of six drillholes from the GSSA's Mineral Systems Drilling Program. It was concluded that, based on pyrite geochemistry alone, the area around hole MSDP12 may be considered to have the most prospectivity for economic magmatic-hydrothermal mineralisation. A further case study was made of seven diamond cored holes from company exploration carried out recently at the Intercept Hill prospect, which is located near the Emmie Bluff IOCG mineral deposit. Trace element analyses of 512 individual crystals derived from 30 drill core samples revealed fascinating and complex sulphide and oxide mineral parageneses. Also, halite-hematite intergrowths were discovered which are presumably Mesoproterozoic in age; this finding is regarded as very significant and highly relevant to the origin of IOCG mineralisation in the Gawler Craton and beyond. Furthermore, the prevalence of gold-rich pyrite over a large area at Intercept Hill (extending for ~3 km between IHAD1 and IHAD5) suggests proximity to a large (potentially world-class) magmatic-hydrothermal system. Notes: Includes:
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Report Book, 2018/00004 Optically stimulated luminescence dating revealing new insights into the age of major regolith units of the eastern Musgrave Province, South Australia. - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining.
Today's landscape in the eastern Musgrave Province, South Australia, comprises vast alluvial and sand plains, aeolian dunes and dunefields. These features formed as a result of episodes of variable alluvial and aeolian activity following the onset of aridity in the Quaternary. However, there have been no geochronological studies in this region with which to understand and reconstruct the transported regolith material dispersion and landscape evolution during the Quaternary. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating was used for the first time in this region to develop a chronology of aeolian landform feature growth and sand plain deposition. This report presents OSL geochronology results from 12 samples collected in the Agnes Creek 1:100 000 map sheet area. These provide the first geochronological constraints for Quaternary deposits in the area. OSL ages of the collected samples range from 24.1 ± 1.5 ka to 64.8 ± 2.7 ka, and show that these deposits formed in the Late Pleistocene. The oldest OSL age for an aeolian deposit in the study area is 62.8 ± 2.5 ka, indicating that prior to 63 ka the area was dominated by extensive sand plains with no or minor isolated dunes. Therefore, major dune development in the eastern Musgrave Province post-dates 63 ka.
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Report Book, 2018/00005 Stronger Partners Stronger Futures, Co-designing the Future Working Paper – Moving Ahead. - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining.
In October 2017, the Mineral Resources Division (MRD) within the Department for Energy and Mining brought together a broad range of explorers and traditional owners in Port Augusta to start practical discussions on the common issues faced by Aboriginal groups and explorers when working together under Part 9B of the Mining Act 1971 (SA). This document outlines all of the relevant issues raised throughout consultation to support the next stage of discussions about how changes to our native title system for mineral exploration are designed and implemented. Pages 5-10 of this document outline the key issues for consideration, how we can achieve change, how we will consult, and advice on achieving good outcomes. Pages 11-49 of this document summarise the recommendations from the Co-designing the Future Workshop Issues Paper and the Co-designing the Future Workshop Report, and actions needed to resolve the key issues from consultation.
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Report Book, 2018/00006 Reg Sprigg’s dude ranch at Cullyamurra Waterhole. - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining.
One interesting aspect of early petroleum exploration which has practically been forgotten is the attempt to establish a recreation centre at Cullyamurra Waterhole by Reg Sprigg. At that stage he was responsible for Santos Ltd’s exploration activities and he was convinced that the first deep exploration well to be drilled on Innamincka Anticline would discover a giant oil field. Thus, he hit on the idea to establish a lodge for visiting American oil men and tycoons at Cullyamurra Waterhole, east of Innamincka Homestead in northeastern South Australia. My children and I were the only ‘guests’ at that intended establishment – but, let’s start at the beginning
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Report Book, 2018/00007 South Australia mineral resources regulation report 2017 - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining.
This annual mineral resources regulation report for 2017 summarises the regulatory performance of the state’s mineral exploration, mining and quarrying industries, providing relevant indicators of how companies are meeting their compliance obligations to mitigate and manage genuine risks, and the regulatory, surveillance and compliance activities undertaken by MRD. The report aligns with the regulatory principles set out in MRD’s Regulating mineral exploration and mining in South Australia: setting the framework for best practice regulation (PDF, 241 kB), and is described in Section 2 of this report. Resource royalties: In 2017 mineral production in South Australia was reported by 305 mineral producers, contributing $148.2 million of mining royalty revenue. In 2017 the royalty audit compliance program audited 98% of mineral royalty revenue and recovered $3.5 million in mining royalty revenue. See Section 4 for details. Legislation, regulation policy and programs: In 2017, MRD conducted the Leading Practice Mining Acts Review, the most comprehensive review of the Mining Act, Opal Mining Act and Mines and Works Inspection Act ever undertaken. MRD engaged with more than 1,700 stakeholders, including meeting with over 70 organisations and 500 individuals in over 40 regional, community and ‘open house’ meetings. This resulted in 82 recommendations for changes to the law forwarded to the Minister.
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Report Book, 2018/00008 Petroleum and Geothermal Energy Act Compliance Policy - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining.
This document outlines the compliance policy pursued for various key requirements of the Petroleum and Geothermal Energy Act 2000 (the Act) and associated Petroleum and Geothermal Energy Regulations 2013 (the Regulations), licence conditions and Statements of Environmental Objectives (SEO). It has been compiled using the openness and transparency principles of the Act
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Report Book, 2018/00009 Petroleum and Geothermal Energy Act compliance report 2017- Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining.
The Energy Resources Division (ERD) is responsible for administering the Petroleum and Geothermal Energy Act 2000 (PGE Act) and associated Regulations on behalf of the Minister for Energy and Mining . The PGE Act enables and regulates the exploration and development of regulated petroleum and geothermal energy resources for the benefit of South Australians. ERD works collaboratively with co-regulators as the lead regulator for petroleum and geothermal energy resources and conducts regulatory surveillance of all licensee operations. ERD compliance monitoring activities occur through the life of a regulated activity from the licence issue, planning and design of exploration and production activities and facilities, in-field surveillance of operations, through to audits of licensee management systems to monitor and enforce compliance with the PGE Act and other relevant legislation. This report provides insight into the compliance activities undertaken by ERD in 2017 and the regulatory compliance of licensees while undertaking regulated activities under the PGE Act. The key regulatory outcomes and activities undertaken in 2017 are summarised here and provide direction for where to find further detail in the body of this report.
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Report Book, 2018/00010 Characterising and mapping alteration in the Punt Hill region: a data integration project - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining.
DPC Resources and Energy Group. Geological Survey of South Australia; Mineral System Footprints Program; South Australia’s 4D Geodynamic and Metallogenic Evolution Program; Monax Mining Limited Abstract: South Australia’s Olympic Cu-Au Province hosts some of the world’s great iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) deposits, such as Olympic Dam, Prominent Hill and Carrapateena. The same causative thermal event resulted in variants of this deposit class being created throughout the Olympic Province, which include deposits of skarn-dominated mineralisation formed where hydrothermal fluids interacted with calcareous lithologies. As part of a broader study aiming to characterise proximal to distal footprints of IOCG-type deposits in the eastern Gawler Craton, the South Australian Geological Survey (GSSA), in collaboration with Monax Mining Limited, used the Punt Hill region as a case study for developing a multi-disciplinary approach to characterise, map and predict alteration associated with skarn-dominated mineralisation which was emplaced during the same thermal event that formed IOCG deposits in the eastern Gawler Craton. The GSSA used samples from company and historic drillholes to systematically acquire co-located geochemical, spectral and petrophysical data in the Punt Hill and Red Lake areas. These data were collected from a regional and prospect-scale distribution of drillholes. Spectral scans of drill core, in the visible to thermal infrared wavelength range, were made using the HyLogger-3TM hyperspectral core scanner. Selected sample intervals were analysed for 65 elements by ICP methods, and for fluorine by specific ion electrode. Drillhole core sampling was supplemented by measurements of magnetic susceptibility and specific gravity. Inversion models of regional aeromagnetic and gravity data were generated to improve the understanding of the 3-dimensional distribution of magnetic susceptibility and density in the region.
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Report Book, 2018/00011 Proceedings for the 5th Australian Regolith Geoscientists Association Conference, Wallaroo, South Australia. - Government of South Australia. Department for Mining and Energy
The 5th Australian Regolith Geoscientists Association (ARGA) Conference was held in Wallaroo, South Australia, from 8th to 11th of April 2018. This multi-disciplinary conference displayed a wide variety of regolith-related research news on various topics including UNCOVER, regolith geochemistry, hydrogeology, soils, geomorphology and landscape evolution. Several field trips were also part of this conference, including a pre-conference field trip on the geology, soils and wine of the Clare Valley, and a mid- and post-conference field trip on the geology and regolith of the northern Yorke Peninsula. The subject report includes the extended abstracts for the oral and poster presentations given at this conference. All presentations given at the conference can be downloaded on the ARGA website: http://regolith.org.au/publications.html#arga2018
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Report Book, 2018/00012 A covert operation outside of Santos’ licence. - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining.
In January 1957 the American petroleum geologist, Dr I.R. Levorsen was retained by Santos to advise the company on its drilling operation and its future exploration policy (Wopfner 2018). Reg Sprigg was still at Wilkatana to show Levorsen around the drilling operation in the Torrens Basin when I received a handwritten memo of his, dated 4/2/57. It was marked confidential and headed: “Re Geol Cross Section of Mootwingee Ranges, N.S.W.” (Fig. 1).
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Report Book, 2018/00014 PACE Initiative, Theme 2, drilling collaboration between government and industry. Year 1 [and 2] successes - drillcore display, PIRSA Core Library, October 12 2005. Accompanying handbook. - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining.
Drill cores from the following PACE collaborative drilling projects were included in the display: - DPY2-02 - RMG Services Pty Ltd, EL 2879 - DPY2-32 - Hillgrove Resources Limited, ML 5776 (Kanmantoo) - DPY2-28 - Terramin Australia Ltd, EL 2839 (Angas) - DPY1-03 - Tasman Resources NL, EL 3209 - DPY2-55 - Havilah Resources NL, EL 2055 (Kalkaroo) - DPY1-16 - Red Metal Ltd, EL 2885 (Moonta) - DPY1-24 - Red Metal Ltd, EL 2979 (Pernatty Lagoon) - DPY2-41 - Stellar Resources Ltd, EL 3089 (Wilgena Hill) - DPY1-32 - Vintage Exploration and Mining Ltd, EL 3295 (Coomandook) - DPY2-52 - Dominion Gold Operations Pty Ltd, EL 3092 (Barton) - DPY1-13 - Adelaide Resources Ltd, EL 2901 (Mount Woods) Notes: A useful historical document requiring to be made accessible in the broader public domain.
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Report Book, 2018/00015 Gawler Craton Airborne Geophysical Survey Region 2A, Murloocoppie – Enhanced geophysical imagery and magnetic source depth models.- Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining
CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering; DPC Resources and Energy Group. Geological Survey of South Australia; Geoscientific Information Strategy Team; South Australia’s 4D Geodynamic and Metallogenic Evolution Team Abstract: This report presents the results of a study jointly conducted by the Geological Survey of South Australia and CSIRO Mineral Resources which aimed to enhance the expression of geological structure in geophysical images and to derive depth to magnetic source estimates over Region 2A of the Gawler Craton Airborne Survey; viz. the Murloocoppie area. The study was based on magnetic field data acquired during February-May 2017 by this airborne magnetic and radiometric survey commissioned by the Geological Survey of South Australia, that have been combined with ground gravity data from the South Australian state gravity database. The 2017-18 Gawler Craton Airborne Survey (GCAS) provides both higher resolution and more consistent mapping of the magnetic field than are available from previous coverage by multiple geophysical surveys of lesser extent. Advantages of the new survey data are quite evident upon inspection of the primary total magnetic intensity (TMI) data, but it is through the enhancement of that TMI data to assist in recovery of geological information that the advantages are most clearly expressed. Many of the enhancements presented in this report are necessarily of limited application to the TMI data previously obtained across the Gawler Craton area, mainly because of known numerous insufficiencies and imperfections in those data, and they would be hampered by the unavoidable effects of abrupt signal strength contrast that appear on passing between survey datasets acquired on different line spacings, flying heights or flight-line orientations. The GCAS data acquisition consistency and close line spacing therefore support higher resolution and more confident source depth mapping from the magnetic field data. Local magnetic field variations arise exclusively from ferromagnetic minerals which may only constitute of the order of 2% or less of the rock (even for what are considered strongly magnetised rocks), while lateral variations in geology which have no associated variation in magnetisation have no direct expression in the magnetic field imagery. In contrast, gravity data respond to variations in density, to which all components of the rock contribute. Gravity field variations therefore provide a complementary mapping of geology. Suitable combinations and contrasts of gravity and magnetic fields provide more diagnostic information about the subsurface than does the sum of the two fields processed and imaged independently.
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Report Book, 2018/00017 South Australian mineral resource production statistics for the six month ended 31 December 2017 - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining.
Production figures for Commodities by Category for 6 Months ending December 2017 - Comparison with previous corresponding period.
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Report Book, 2018/00018 The South Australian Atlas of Geoscience and Mineral Exploration data - Woomera Prohibited Area within the Gawler Craton. 2nd edn. - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining.
The Woomera Prohibited Area (WPA) is a military testing range covering 122,188 square km of the land surface of central South Australia. Underlying it are highly economic minerals - prospective rocks of the Gawler Craton, a major province of the Earth's crust which hosts the world-class Olympic Dam copper-gold-uranium deposit and major metal - producing mines such as Prominent Hill and Challenger. This second edition of the "South Australian Atlas of Geoscience and Mineral Exploration Data for the Woomera Prohibited Area within the Gawler Craton" is a compilation of currently available open file spatial information including administrative, geological, geophysical and remotely sensed data. A considerable number of government initiatives have been undertaken since the release of the Atlas first edition in 2013, which have further captured a range of important geophysical and geological data, adding to the richness and complexity of geoscientific data and information covering this important geological region within South Australia.
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Report Book, 2018/00019 Coompana Drilling and Geochemistry Workshop, 2018. Extended abstracts. - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining.
The Coompana Drilling Project was the culmination of a number of years of precompetitive geophysical data acquisition, analysis and interpretation. It set out to retrieve new basement samples from beneath the Nullarbor Plain that would allow program participants to begin to place new geological constraints on the evolution and prospectivity of this unexplored region. The subject workshop and extended abstracts volume represent the culmination of this program of precompetitive geoscience research, and the final release of much of the acquired data. The presentations made here convey the results of a more than $7M investment in new geoscience made by the South Australian and Federal governments for work undertaken in a true geological frontier. The knowledge and data gained have led to a step-change in our understanding of the covered geology of the west of South Australia, and hopefully this improved insight will pave the way for the next major mineral discovery in South Australia.
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Report Book, 2018/00020 Brukunga mine site water monitoring report 2017 - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining.
Key points relevant to 2017 include: • Brukunga rainfall for 2017 (705.6 mm) was higher than the long-term average (585.0 mm). This resulted in an above average volume of AMD being treated (182.1 ML) by the acid water neutralisation plant in 2017. • Water quality in Dawesley Creek downstream of the mine in 2017 decreased compared to the long-term water quality average (2004 to 2016) as a result of the high rainfall. However, the installation of the Dawesley Creek diversion drain (2014) and a new retention pond and pumps (commissioned June 2016) helped to mitigate potential downstream AMD impacts. • Untreated acid flushes of low pH and metal-rich water are observed downstream of the mine in both the grab and composite sampling data. These flushes usually occur immediately after the drier summer months and to varying degrees sporadically in the wetter months during flood events. • Water quality downstream of the mine generally improves with distance from the mine, with the zone of impact of AMD contamination mostly contained within Dawesley Creek (as opposed to the downstream creeks and rivers). • Metal and sulfate concentrations in Dawesley Creek downstream of the mine exceeded the ANZECC/ARMCANZ safe levels for potable, irrigation and stock water at certain periods of time in 2017 and in most years (usually autumn and winter). Exceeded values relate to sulfate, aluminium, cadmium, manganese and iron. This presently precludes the use of Dawesley Creek water for any beneficial use downstream of the mine at certain periods of the year. • A number of overflow events were notified to EPA in 2017 due to high annual rainfall and frequent storm events in winter and spring.
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Report Book, 2018/00022 NVC Rangelands Desktop Assessment Tool for the Cooper-Eromanga: Technical Summary. - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining
The Rangelands Desktop Assessment Tool (DAT) is an application to rapidly assess Native Vegetation Council (NVC) Significant Environmental Benefit (SEB) values for clearance and offset applications in the Cooper-Eromanga Basin region. The Rangelands DAT method uses a combination of information derived from the existing Rangelands Assessment Manual (RAM) and Scoresheet method (Native Vegetation Branch 2017), Flora and fauna communities of the Cooper-Eromanga Basin study (Figure 1, Hobbs et al. 2017), and Landsat satellite fractional cover and water observations from space data. This application dramatically reduces the cost of these assessments by virtually eliminating the need for on-ground surveys and detailed reports required under the alternate RAM and Scoresheet method. The Rangelands DAT application also provides uniform and consistent assessment results which eliminates biases or errors which would result from field observations influenced by variations in seasonal conditions or consultants’ knowledge, interpretation and ecological skills. One of the greatest strengths of the DAT is that provides mapping of important ecological assets and permits forward planning to minimise environmental risks and costs of new developments in the region. The application is strongly supported by major energy industry operators in the Cooper-Eromanga Basin region. Rangelands DAT information is available at a spatial resolution of 30 x 30 metres.
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Report Book, 2018/00023 Guide to the Statutes Amendment (Leading Practice in Mining) Bill 2018. - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining
This Guide summarises the proposed amendments to the Mining Act 1971 (SA), Opal Mining Act 1995 (SA), and Mines and Works Inspection Act 1920 (SA) outlined in the Statutes Amendment (Mineral Resources) Bill 2018 (the Bill)
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Report Book, 2018/00024 “Big Sisters” wake up to Santos. - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining.
After World War II petroleum-production, processing and marketing of end products was dominated by large, internationally operating petroleum companies. The most prominent amongst them were Mobil Oil, British Petroleum (BP), Royal Dutch Shell, Esso, Chevron, Texaco and Gulf Oil. In the jargon of the industry they were referred to as the “Big Sisters” and their financial and political “punch” reached far beyond the influence of governments. In the 1950s, the name “The seven Sisters” came into use, a name which gained notoriety by the sarcastic connotation attached to it (“le sette sorelle”) by Enrico Mattei, chief of the Italian state oil company Agip, (Sampson, 1975).
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Report Book, 2018/00025 Mintabie opal resource evaluation: Current value of opal resources and projected value of undiscovered resources. - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining.
Mintabie opal resource evaluation: Current value of opal resources and projected value of undiscovered resources.
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Report Book, 2018/00026 Sedimentology of the late Palaeozoic Cape Jervis Formation, Troubridge Basin, South Australia. - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining.
eep Exploration Technologies Cooperative Research Centre (DET CRC); The University of Adelaide. Department of Earth Sciences; Department for Energy and Mining. Geological Survey of South Australia; Future Industries Institute, University of South Australia Abstract: The late Palaeozoic Cape Jervis Formation of the Troubridge Basin in southern South Australia provides a sedimentological record of the glacial environment during the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation. The sedimentary sequence is divided into five informal units that comprise the Cape Jervis Formation, and which preserve sedimentological features that have been used to constrain models for the glacial setting and associated depositional mechanisms prevailing during this time. Landscape features such as glaciated pavements and the presence of lodgement till diamictite suggest that the glacial setting was a wet-based, continental icesheet with ice tongue glaciers at the front margin of the icesheet. The icesheet is believed to have advanced in a northwards to north-westwards direction, forming glaciated bedrock surfaces and depositing lodgement till. The presence of fluviolacustrine beds suggests that the icesheet's movement later ceased and its growth stagnated, which facilitated the formation of glacial lakes and meltwater streams. The icesheet then began to melt significantly and its leading edges retreated southward. Ablation of the ice resulted in deposition of a flow till complex and caused a eustatic rise in mean sea level that resulted in a marine transgression and subsequent deposition of glaciomarine sedimentary rocks. Notes: This report presents the results of the sedimentology of the sedimentary rocks carried out on five measured sections of the Cape Jervis Formation in the Troubridge Basin. Measured sections were systematically logged and sampled by the lead author and Dr Steve Hill during field trips made between July 2010 and February 2012. Analytical methods used included close observations of the physical characteristics of the sedimentary rocks, in part involving detailed petrology and mineralogy. Petrological analysis was conducted by the lead author at Adelaide Microscopy at the University of Adelaide, using thin sections prepared by Pontifex and Associated Pty Ltd in Adelaide. Sediment mineralogical (spectroscopic) analysis and data processing was conducted by Georgina Gordon of the GSSA using the HyloggerTM 3-3 at the Glenside Drill Core Storage Facility in Adelaide. This report builds on research initially conducted by Ludbrook (1967) and expanded upon by Alley and Bourman (1984) and Bourman and Alley (1990, 1995, 1999) which focused on the millimetre to centimetre - scale sedimentology as well as the depositional setting of the sedimentary rocks of the Cape Jervis Formation. These previously researched aspects are duly referenced throughout this report. The inferred depositional settings of the glacigene sedimentary rocks of the Troubridge Basin, based on the sedimentology, are presented herein.
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Report Book, 2018/00030 Premier's Awards Energy and Mining – Award Guidelines - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining.
The Premier’s Awards in Energy and Mining recognise excellence demonstrated by leading resources and energy sector companies and organisations in the areas of diversity, working with communities and innovation.
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Report Book, 2018/00031 South Australian mineral resource production statistics for the six month ended 30 June 2018 - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining.
Production figures for Commodities by Category for 6 Months ending 30 June 2018 - Comparison with previous corresponding period.
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Report Book, 2018/00033 Environmental values in the Cooper-Eromanga Basin. - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining
his study provides spatial mapping of multiple environmental values, and indicators of landscape functions, vegetation and soil conditions, and environmental risks. This information allows rapid, routine and consistent assessments of the potential impact of existing or new industry activities on important ecological and cultural assets, and landscape functions. This spatial information has been produced at a locational accuracy of less than 30 metres to allow more precise evaluations of risk and optimal siting of industry activities to avoid ecologicallysensitive areas, such as wetlands, groundwater-dependent ecosystems, ecological refugia and habitats for threatened species. Spatial data and desktop tools provided by this study dramatically reduce the cost of many environmental assessments and monitoring activities by greatly reducing the need for on-ground surveys. These applications provide uniform and consistent results by eliminating biases or errors resulting from field observations influenced by variations in seasonal conditions or ecological knowledge of assessment staff. One of greatest benefits of this approach is that all industry sectors can efficiently identify from their desktops the location of important ecological assets and plan developments and activities in ways which minimise environmental risks and costs. An application of this data and remote-sensing technologies has recently been adopted for legislated assessments for most native vegetation clearance, offset applications and compliance matters in the Cooper-Eromanga Basin region. Notes: This report is also published as Department for Environment and Water 'DEW Technical report 2018/04'.
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Report Book, 2018/00034 Geological Survey of South Australia Discovery Day 2018: presentation abstracts and posters. - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining
he Geological Survey of South Australia Discovery Day provides a forum for the discussion and delivery of new geoscience data and information. In 2018, Discovery Day was held on the 5th December at the Adelaide Convention Centre consecutively with the South Australian Mining and Exploration Conference on the 6th December. These two events form demonstrate new geoscience and mineral exploration activity in South Australia and demonstrate the vibrancy of the South Australia geoscience community. In 2018 two other workshops run by the Geological Survey of South Australia (GSSA) have also been held. The first is a workshop on the Gawler Craton Airborne Survey (GCAS). Focussed on the delivery of the new aeromagnetic data and interpretation, this workshop was held on the 3rd December. The second workshop was the AusLAMP release day held on the 4th December and which celebrated the release of the complete magnetotelluric dataset for the state of South Australia together with interpretations of the data from South Australia and elsewhere across Australia. The first week in December 2018 has truly become a week of geoscience and resource information. At Discovery Day 2018, a range of geoscience talks were delivered including an overview of the new MinEx Cooperative Research Centre (CRC); the results of drilling for groundwater in northern South Australia as part of a collaboration of GSSA with SA Water; and two talks that relate the outcomes of GCAS and new work in the central Gawler Craton that has utilised the new aeromagnetic imagery from GCAS. The second session was focussed on the emerging technologies for non-destructive analysis of geological materials with both a panel session, and talks on the use of the Hylogger instrumentation by GSSA and on new technologies being utilised and developed by CSIRO. In addition, talks on lithospheric architecture and mantle composition across South Australia were also delivered that investigate these broad-scale features and their relationships to mineral systems. The third session also represents the delivery of new results from two Australian Research Council (ARC) Linkage programs underway that are supported by GSSA. The range of talks on offer thus capture the broad themes of work being undertaken by GSSA and collaborating organisations. In addition to the talks, a range of poster presentations were developed by GSSA and others that investigate the major geological domains of South Australia. These posters were presented in the exhibition space adjoining the plenary hall. The GSSA posters were accompanied by a range of student posters that showcase the vibrant research community within Adelaide.
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Report Book, 2018/00036 Regional geochemistry of the Coompana area. - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining
The Coompana area is characterised by several thick basin cover sequences dominantly composed of limestone, and forms the topographically flat Nullarbor Plain. Consequently, this region was previously considered too challenging for mineral exploration. However, a strong magnetic anomaly exists at Coompana and preliminary geochemical work by other researchers suggested that a surface geochemical signature was present and may be linked to this deep subsurface feature/anomaly. A collaboration between the Geological Survey of South Australia (GSSA) and CSIRO aimed to understand the regional surface geochemistry, potential geochemical dispersion through the cover and also to establish a workflow for large scale, rapid geochemical sampling that is transferable to other regions of interest for GSSA. The work reported herein builds on the findings of geophysical studies (Foss et al., 2017) and of the Coompana exploratory drilling program (Dutch et al., 2018a), and specifically determines the multi-element geochemistry of the near surface on a regional basis, with the addition of some limited determinations of down regolith profile geochemistry which were integrated with laboratory assay results for the cored drillhole basement chemistry obtained as part of the Coompana exploratory drilling program. The area covered for regional surface sampling covers an estimated 50 km x 80 km grid, with samples taken at 4 km spacing. The sampled area overlaps with the Coompana magnetic anomaly and extends further west and north. GSSA completed a much more detailed regolith map of this area, too, which provided regolith and landform control (Krapf & Irvine, 2018). The project successfully characterised the background geochemistry of the surface, providing a valuable baseline data set for future exploration in related areas. It also was highly successful in developing a workflow for the rapid regional characterisation of large tracts of land. The combination of best practice regional geochemistry with surface samples, landscape models and existing geophysical and down-hole drilling studies provides new geoscience products and a better understanding of the Coompana region.
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Report Book, 2018/00037 Gawler Craton Airborne Geophysical Survey Region 3A, Andamooka – Enhanced geophysical imagery and magnetic source depth models. - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining.
his report presents the results of a study jointly conducted by the Geological Survey of South Australia and CSIRO Mineral Resources which aimed to enhance the expression of geological structure in geophysical images and to derive depth to magnetic source estimates over Region 3A of the Gawler Craton Airborne Survey; viz. all of the ANDAMOOKA 1:250k map sheet area. The study was based on magnetic field data acquired during February-June 2017 by this airborne magnetic and radiometric survey commissioned by the Geological Survey of South Australia, that have been combined with ground gravity data from the South Australian state gravity database. The 2017-18 Gawler Craton Airborne Survey (GCAS) provides both higher resolution and more consistent mapping of the magnetic field than are available from previous coverage by multiple geophysical surveys of lesser extent. Advantages of the new survey data are quite evident upon inspection of the primary total magnetic intensity (TMI) data, but it is through the enhancement of that TMI data to assist in recovery of geological information that the advantages are most clearly expressed. Many of the enhancements presented in this report are necessarily of limited application to the TMI data previously obtained across the Gawler Craton area, mainly because of known numerous insufficiencies and imperfections in those data, and they would be hampered by the unavoidable effects of abrupt signal strength contrast that appear on passing between survey datasets acquired on different line spacings, flying heights or flight-line orientations. The GCAS data acquisition consistency and close line spacing therefore support higher resolution and more confident source depth mapping from the magnetic field data. Local magnetic field variations arise exclusively from ferromagnetic minerals which may only constitute of the order of 2% or less of the rock (even for what are considered strongly magnetised rocks), while lateral variations in geology which have no associated variation in magnetisation have no direct expression in the magnetic field imagery. In contrast, gravity data respond to variations in density, to which all components of the rock contribute. Gravity field variations therefore provide a complementary mapping of geology. Suitable combinations and contrasts of gravity and magnetic fields provide more diagnostic information about the subsurface than does the sum of the two fields processed and imaged independently. The output of this study is a collection of images and digital data products generated to facilitate geological interpretation (see the contents of GDP 00096). The products are not themselves interpretive, but provide more direct access to interpretation than do directly measured datasets treated alone. These products, and in particular the magnetic source depth estimates, are designed to provide the genesis of a ‘live’ resource which can be progressively upgraded rather than simply being replaced when further studies are undertaken in the area, the depth solution database is added to, or when new drillhole information is reported.
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Report Book, 2018/00038 Gawler Craton Airborne Geophysical Survey Region 3B, Torrens – Enhanced geophysical imagery and magnetic source depth models. - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining
This report presents the results of a study jointly conducted by the Geological Survey of South Australia and CSIRO Mineral Resources which aimed to enhance the expression of geological structure in geophysical images and to derive depth to magnetic source estimates over Region 3B of the Gawler Craton Airborne Survey; viz. all of the TORRENS 1:250k map sheet area. The study was based on magnetic field data acquired during March-June 2017 by this airborne magnetic and radiometric survey commissioned by the Geological Survey of South Australia, that have been combined with ground gravity data from the South Australian state gravity database. The 2017-18 Gawler Craton Airborne Survey (GCAS) provides both higher resolution and more consistent mapping of the magnetic field than are available from previous coverage by multiple geophysical surveys of lesser extent. Advantages of the new survey data are quite evident upon inspection of the primary total magnetic intensity (TMI) data, but it is through the enhancement of that TMI data to assist in recovery of geological information that the advantages are most clearly expressed. Many of the enhancements presented in this report are necessarily of limited application to the TMI data previously obtained across the Gawler Craton area, mainly because of known numerous insufficiencies and imperfections in those data, and they would be hampered by the unavoidable effects of abrupt signal strength contrast that appear on passing between survey datasets acquired on different line spacings, flying heights or flight-line orientations. The GCAS data acquisition consistency and close line spacing therefore support higher resolution and more confident source depth mapping from the magnetic field data. Local magnetic field variations arise exclusively from ferromagnetic minerals which may only constitute of the order of 2% or less of the rock (even for what are considered strongly magnetised rocks), while lateral variations in geology which have no associated variation in magnetisation have no direct expression in the magnetic field imagery. In contrast, gravity data respond to variations in density, to which all components of the rock contribute. Gravity field variations therefore provide a complementary mapping of geology. Suitable combinations and contrasts of gravity and magnetic fields provide more diagnostic information about the subsurface than does the sum of the two fields processed and imaged independently. The output of this study is a collection of images and digital data products generated to facilitate geological interpretation (see the contents of GDP 00097). The products are not themselves interpretive, but provide more direct access to interpretation than do directly measured datasets treated alone. These products, and in particular the magnetic source depth estimates, are designed to provide the genesis of a ‘live’ resource which can be progressively upgraded rather than simply being replaced when further studies are undertaken in the area, the depth solution database is added to, or when new drillhole information is reported.
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Report Book, 2018/00039 Origin, classification and modes of emplacement of Sturtian glaciomarine megaclasts of the MacDonald Corridor, Bimbowrie Conservation Park, near Olary, South Australia. - Government of South Australia. Department for Energy and Mining
Ten glacial megaclasts, unique perhaps from a global perspective, have been identified in the half-graben rift of the MacDonald Corridor. The MacDonald Corridor is the most easterly of four half-grabens containing Neoproterozoic low-grade metasedimentary rocks situated between inliers of Palaeoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic basement at the south-western margin of the Curnamona Province. These corridors originated as extensional structures during the last of three major episodes of rifting that led to the eventual break-up of the supercontinent Rodinia. This rift phase was synchronous with the older (Sturtian-age) of the two major Cryogenian glaciations of the 850–600 Ma glacio-epoch that are recorded in the rift complex of the Adelaide Geosyncline in South Australia. It was during this epoch that complex life forms, including the first animals, evolved on Earth. Sedimentation in the MacDonald Corridor half-graben commenced in the early Sturtian, with deposition of siltstone and quartzite of the Belair Subgroup of the Burra Group. These are disconformably overlain by the glacially-related Yudnamutana Subgroup, comprising diamictite and sandstone of the Pualco Tillite, succeeded by the conformably overlying Benda Siltstone, followed unconformably by the Wilyerpa Formation. The Benda Siltstone contains abundant dropstones demonstrating the presence of floating ice, and interfingers on all scales with a complex variety of facies, including cross-bedded and structureless sandstones, the bedded sedimentary Braemar ironstone facies, diamictite (both ferruginous and non-ferruginous), arkosic grit, and the Old Boolcoomata Conglomerate Member composed predominantly of clasts of Bimbowrie Suite granite. Mostly the conglomerate occurs only in the lower part of the Benda Siltstone, but it interfingers to such an extent that it locally makes up the whole thickness of this unit. This latter feature, the Christmas-tree Fan, is an accumulation of coarse debris derived from a granitic source within the adjacent Kalabity (basement) Inlier.
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