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Above and Below - The South Australian Department of Mines and Energy, 1944 to 1994; O'Neil, B.J. 1995
Above and Below is the product of a two-fold proposal of the Department of Mines and Energy to publish a continuation of its history in the period since 1944, and to have this history recorded from a perspective outside the Department. Together with its predecessor, In Search of Mineral Wealth, this book is a recognition of the importance of the mining and petroleum industries to South Australia and of the wealth and material prosperity they have generated in and for the State. In describing the Department's evolution since 1944, the author has placed special emphasis on the people who have worked in, or were associated with, the Department. This focus on people from the bottom to the top of the Department is reflected in the title, Above and Below. A second reference relates to the gradual assertion by the South Australian government of official control over all minerals above and below the surface of the earth in the State, and in the administration of its mining activity. Thirdly, the Department has been responsible for a wide range of activities conducted above and below the surface, the most recent manifestation of which is the South Australian Exploration Initiative, a leading technology-driven programme in which extensive aerial magnetic and radiometric surveys have been undertaken above the landscape to aid in interpreting what might lie hidden at the depth of unweathered basement below the ground. This approach is the way of the future. Directly reading the rocks will still remain important in the search for new evidence of untapped mineral deposits, but the discovery of major orebodies from surface outcrops appears now to be largely a thing of the past, since scrutiny at ground level has been thorough in the closer settled parts of South Australia.
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Bibliography of South Australian Geology. Teesdale-Smith E.N. 1958
In this bibliography of South Australian geology an attempt has been made to include all articles, books and pamphlets which contain data on the geology of the State. It has been prepared from an author index, which ·together with a unit or rock index, a locality index and a geological age index, had previously been compiled to cover literature on the geology of South Australia, These four indices were compiled by the author under the direction of the Director of Mines. Similar indices have been prepared in other States by various persons under the auspices of the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics. The bibliography includes all literature published up to and including June, 1956. As well as covering geology and the directly related sciences of geochemistry, geophysics, palaeobotany, palaeontology and palynology, any articles dealing with sciences such as archaeology, geography, geomorphology and pedology, but which have a direct bearing on geology, are included. The bibliography is indexed under authors' names in alphabetical order on the letter by letter principle. Works by one author are indexed chronologically and papers by joint authors' are included among a particular author's work. A paper by joint authors appears under each of its author ' s names by title, but only in the case of the senior author are further details given, other authors being crossindexed to the senior author. References are abbreviated where possible as in the World List of Scientific Periodicals, 1950. A brief abstract of each paper is included. At the end of the bibliography there is a locality index which refers all localities mentioned in the titles of the entries to their 4-mile military survey map reference.
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Burra Miners 1860 1865: An Index to Burra - Burra Mines Copper Ore Day Books. Drew G.J. 1990
Burra was the largest metalliferous mine in Australia between 1845 and 1860, and employed up to 1,000 men and boys. The workforce was predominantly Cornish, Burra being the first significant concentration of Cornish immigrants in Australia. The Cornish brought with them their traditional mining techniques and social customs, and have left a unique cultural heritage. No list of miners employed at Burra exists, but two Copper Ore Day Books have survived. These books record the daily sampling of copper ore on the ore floors, and include the name of the leader of each underground ore mining team (tribute party). These records were kept by surface captains and were used in the calculation of wages. This report contains an index of the miners' names recorded in these Day Books, which cover the periods from July 1860 to November 1861, and October 1863 to December 1865. It also includes a brief review of underground mining methods and employment systems used at Burra. The two Day Books were part of a complete series dating from 1845.
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Cornish Mining Heritage; Johns, R.K. 1986
In South Australia, early mining methods, haulage and processing of ore and pumping of water from mines such as Glen Osmond, Montacute, Burra, Kapunda and Wallaroo Moonta, were based on Cornish technology. Observations are presented, based on visit to Cornwall in 1985, to study the contemporary mining scene and inspect sites of formerly famous mining operations. Consideration is given on how such archaeological relics in SA might be recognized, interpreted and preserved for educational, historical and tourist purposes.
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Cornish Beam Engines in South Australian Mines, 2nd Edition; Drew, G.J.; Connell, J.E. 2012 (reprinted version)
This book was first published in 1993 in response to the interest in South Australia's mining heritage created by the State's Jubilee 150 in 1986. This second edition includes a section on the Cornish Mining World Heritage Site and the concept of a transnational serial listing of other Cornish mining landscapes across the world. New plans have also been added following further research and conservation work at several sites. Cornish miners and engineers played a central role in the early development of the South Australia's mining industry and it was therefore natural that Cornish machinery and mining methods were adopted. The successful mining of copper would not have been possible without Cornish beam engines, which drained mines, raised ore, and powered crushing and concentrating machinery. This revised and updated publication presents a thoroughly researched historical review from a SA perspective that includes engineering aspects and practices of a mining era that had such a profound impact on the State's development.
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Corridors Through Time. The geology of the Flinders Ranges, South Australia; Selby, J. 1990 (reprinted version)
This book tells the story of the geological history of the Flinders Ranges and includes numerous spectacular photographs, the ancient environments and life forms, the forces which built the mountain chain and the processes which have shaped what is now one of the world's great geological monuments.
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Echunga Goldfield. Drew, G.J. 1984
The Echunga Goldfield preserves a wide range of gold mining activity over period of almost 150 years. The field stretches southwards from Hahndorf and comprises three main areas; Hahndorf to Mylor, Old Echunga Diggings (including Chapmans Gully), Jupiter Creek Diggings. Although reef gold was first discovered at the Victoria Mine near Montacute in 1846, and alluvial gold in the Onkaparinga River near Balhannah in 1849, Echunga was the frrst proclaimed goldfield in the State, in 1852. Gold mining contributed greatly to the development of Australia in the latter half of the 19th century. The gold resources were widely distributed, and towns grew overnight as news of rich finds attracted rushes of thousands of men. However, the gold finds in South Australia were too small (0.25% of the Australian total production) to play a major part in the economic development of the State. Though they stimulated much local excitement and caused significant short term population movements, they could not compete with mineral discoveries in other States which led to mass exodus from South Australia on several occasions. This publication includes, detailed history, plans of workings, historical newspaper reports and points of interest along Echunga and Jupiter Creek Gold Diggings walking trails.
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Environmental Planning Techniques. Buckley, R.G. 1987
Presents methods of environmental planning, concentrating on those not yet in general use in Australia and not yet dictated by legislation. Contents of this publication include; corporate costs and benefits, standard EIA techniques, new approaches in environmental planning, extended costs benefit analysis and environmental policy.
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Goldfields of South Australia. Drew G.J. 1993
This report provides a general account of the location(including detailed maps) and early history of gold occurrences in South Australia, prior to the opening of Olympic Dam. This information has been compiled from published and unpublished departmental reports, mine summary cards, and early newspaper clippings. There is no reference to new prospects of the Central Gawler Gold Province of the Gawler Craton (e.g. Barns, Tunkillia), and of the Curnamona Province (e.g. White Dam). Gold in South Australia's historic goldfields occurs predominantly in quartz reefs associated with Precambrian rocks (rocks older than 1000 million years), as well as in much younger Tertiary rocks (< 60 million years old) and in modern alluvial sedimentary deposits. The principal gold occurrences are in the Mount Lofty Ranges, Mid North, Olary and Tarcoola districts. Other, minor occurrences exist in the northern Flinders Ranges, Fleurieu Peninsula, Kangaroo Island and Far North. The goldfield descriptions and accompanying location maps presented here are therefore arranged under these geographic groupings for ease of reference.
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History and Role of Government Geological Surveys in Australia. Johns R.K. (Ed.) 1976
Geological Surveys are a feature of government science and technology in practically every country in the world and governments have generally found it necessary to establish a body to advise on mineral resources. But the geologist's and the politician's views on how this can be done have frequently been in conflict. Governments in the past have sought quick answers to short-term problems and have not always taken kindly to the scientist's insistence on systematic progress. In Australia, the early history of the Geological Survey of Victoria provides a classic example of such a clash of interest; and it is ironical that the members of that Survey, disbanded in 1869, were responsible for establishing, or, in the case of Victoria, resuscitating, Geological Surveys in nearly all the Australian colonies. The establishment and subsequent growth of the Geological Surveys in the various Colonies (States since Federation in 1901) have followed generally similar lines and each was created at different times in response to demands for government investigation of mineral resources. New South Wales and Queensland turned fairly quickly to coalfield mapping and Queensland and South Australia to copper; and, gradually, as the national economy matured and demand arose for other raw materials, each Survey broadened its activities, seeking other metals, industrial minerals, water and much later petroleum.
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In Search of Mineral Wealth - The South Australian Geological Survey and Department of Mines to 1944; O'Neil, B.J. 1982
Mining operations, highly unstable and unpredictable ventures, have on occasion provided a sense of stability to South Australia and its economy. Indeed, the history of European settlement is intricately linked to the fluctuating fortunes of the mining industry. The appointment of the first Government Geologist, Henry Yorke Lyell Brown, on 1 December 1882 was made during a period of drought and depression in the Colony. The establishment of the Department of Mines in 1894 occurred under similar circumstances. Both measures were intended to assist private industry in the exploitation of mineral and water resources and thereby to ensure that the people of South Australia acquired some benefits. This historical research work: In Search of Mineral Wealth was commissioned by the South Australian Department of Mines and Energy to mark its approaching centenary in 1982, and was written by Bernard O'Neil as his thesis contribution to a Master of Arts degree from the Department of History at the University of Adelaide. Its first two chapters, covering the period between 1836 and 1882, concentrate on the politics of the time and outline the interaction of the Government and private enterprise in the mining industry. The following four chapters describe the operations of the Geological Survey and Department of Mines until 1911; attention is focussed on the activities of H.Y.L. Brown who became a legend in his lifetime. The final four chapters canvass the functions of the Department under the leadership of L. Keith Ward and also relate the development of mineral deposits, including uranium, coal, copper, iron and gold, and the petroleum and water resources of the State.
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Late Cainozoic Rock Units and Depositional Environments, Lake Frome Area, South Australia. Callen R.A. and Tedford R.H. 1976
Five new rock units are defined for the Lake Frome area of South Australia. The Namba Formation of Miocene age constitutes fine grained immature muddy sediments laid down in a low-energy fluviatile and lacustrine environment, possibly partly estuarine or lagoonal. Climate was subtropical or warm temperate with high rainfall, but seasonal aridity. Aphanitic oolitic lacustrine dolomite and palygorskite are included in this sequence. The Flinders Ranges had very low relief. The overlying and intertonguing Willawortina Formation represents alluvial fan deposits with minor lacustrine phases, recording the beginning of the late Cainozoic uplift of the Flinders Ranges, during which the Miocene lake was greatly reduced in area. The Millyera Formation, constituting laminated ostracode bearing clay, fine sand, and charophyte limestone, records lacustrine deposition during the Pleistocene. This took place in an enlarged ancestral Lake Frome. The essentially fluviatile and aeolian deposits of the Eurinilla Formation and Coonarbine Formation were deposited during the late Pleistocene and early Recent. Arid and pluvial climates alternate in the late Tertiary and Quaternary. Drainage trends and the predecessor of Lake Frome were established, closely approximating present day geography. During deposition of the Coonarbine Formation the seif dunes of the southern Strzelecki Desert formed.
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Late Precambrian and Cambrian Geology of the Adelaide Geosyncline and Stuart Shelf, South Australia (Excursion guide no. 33 for 25th International Geological Congress). 1976
The aim of this excursion is to see and make comparison between a diversity of Precambrian and Cambrian sequences in varying tectonic and sedimentary environments. These range from the Gawler Craton and Stuart Shelf in the west to the deeper basinal region of the Mount Lofty and Flinders Ranges of southern and central South Australia, known as the Adelaide Geosyncline. The basinal region was incorporated in a Cambro Ordovician fold belt. Exposures are good and the rocks are generally little or moderately metamorphosed, hence South Australia is a key area in the study of the late Precambrian (Adelaidean) and early Cambrian. Localities visited include stratotypes and illustrate problems of correlation and age determination, the base of the Cambrian, the Ediacara Fauna, glacigene rocks, strematolites, cherts containing algal filaments, sedimentary magnesite, diapiric structures and fossiliferous Cambrian sequences. Basement to the Adelaidean is seen in the west near Whyalla and near Arkaroola in the northeastern Flinders Ranges. Some significant mineral deposits to be visited are Middleback Ranges iron ore of the Gawler Craton, Beltana willernite, and Burra copper associated with diapirs of the Mount Lofty-Flinders Ranges. South of Wilpena Chalet the excursion route is mainly on bitumen roads, but further north roads are unsealed and more likely to become impassable in wet weather.
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Mine and Quarry Rehabilitation in South Australia; Selby, J.; Hiern, M.N. 1985 (reprinted version)
This colourful publication, prepared with the assistance of the local extractive and commercial minerals industry, depicts how current South Australian surface mines and quarries are being designed to acceptable environmental standards. A readily seen example, the ongoing rehabilitation of Stonyfell quarry, illustrates the progress being made in redesigning Adelaide's Hills Face Zone quarries. Examples of the uses to which abandoned operations can be put are given. Illustrations, photographs and simple diagrams with brief captions enhance this publication, which is ideal for publicity purposes.
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Mineral Resources of the Adelaide Geosyncline; Johns, R.K; Morris, B.J; Horn, C.M; Robertson, R.S; Flint, D.J; McCallum, W.S; Scott, D.C.; Keeling, J.L; Pain, A.M; Young, D.A; Gravestock, D.I; Smith, P.C; Gerdes, L.A. 1988
The Flinders and Mount Lofty Ranges of South Australia consist of rocks once deposited as sediments in an elongated basin. Known as the Adelaide Geosyncline, the basin stretched from Kangaroo Island to at least as far as Oodnadatta and across to Broken Hill. The rocks of this world famous geological province provide a record of changing environments and life forms spanning a period from 1100 to 500 million years before present. This publication has been compiled from a display prepared for the launch of SADME Bulletin 53, held at the Australian Mineral Foundation on 7 December 1987. The importance and diversity of commodities found in the Geosyncline are highlighted in the geological maps, text and photographs in order to stimulate new interest in mineral exploration across this complex and exciting geological province
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Minerals of the Burra Mine, South Australia; Grguric, B.; Pring, A.; Drew, G. 1995
Burra, discovered in 1845, was Australia's first great mine, and at the time was one of the largest and richest in the world, producing nearly 5% of the total world output of copper. Today the mine is still famous for the beautiful specimens of bright green malachite and blue azurite which adorn the exhibitions of the world's leading mineralogical museums. This handbook gives a brief history of the mine, describes the geology of the copper deposit and details the minerals that have been found in it
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Mining in South Australia - A Pictorial History; Drexel, J.F. 1982
In recognition of the centenary of Henry Yorke Lyell Brown's appointment as the first Government Geologist for South Australia, and the foundation of the Department of Mines and Energy, aspects of South Australia's colourful and vital mining and mineral processing history are presented in this volume through an assembly, with complementary text, of nearly 400 archival photographs, many of which have not been published previously. The local mining industry has had a profound influence on the economic development of South Australia: on immigration, notably from Cornwall and Wales; on infrastructure, through growth of the City of Adelaide and of the towns serving the mining communities; in improved communications, ports and railways; in provision of capital for investment in other enterprises, as at Broken Hill; for the promotion of education, notably the University of Adelaide; and in development of social character. This book comprises 25 chapters based on a diversity of metals and minerals including copper, gold, uranium and opal, non-metallic and industrial minerals, and building materials, including dimension stone, slate, aggregate, clay and shale. Its scope embraces the small as well as large mining ventures of the State, from early silver and lead discoveries, through copper and gold, to Cooper Basin petroleum development and the exploration of the Olympic Dam copper-gold-uranium deposit on Roxby Downs Station.
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Morphetts Enginehouse and the Cornish Beam Engine, Burra Mine, South Australia. Drew G.J. 1987
Morphett's Enginehouse Museum consists of a small part of the Burra Historic Mine Site, located on the edge of the historic town of Burra in the mid north of South Australia. Burra was the first mining town in Australia and in 1850 was the largest inland town. The influence of Burra on the economy of South Australia and on mining in Australia gives the town and mine considerable historic significance to all Australians. The reconstruction of Morphett's Enginehouse and the adjacent shaft in 1986 has provided a unique heritage and tourist facility at the mine site with an interpretive display on the Cornish beam engine. The information contained in this booklet is drawn from that display. The project was one of the most ambitious and exciting mining restoration projects in Australia, and indicates a potential for the Burra Mine site to become one of the main mining heritage sites in Australia.
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One Day Geological Excursion of the Adelaide Region. Parker A.J. (Compiler) 1986
One day geological excursions of the Adelaide region including the Barossa Valley, Mount Lofty Ranges and Fleurieu Peninsula, 19th February, 1986. The geology within an 80 km radius of Adelaide is quite varied and encompasses much of South Australia's geological evolution. Early to Middle Proterozoic basement, underlying the Adelaide Geosyncline and Kanmantoo Trough successions, including many type sections, are also exposed within the same region. The classical Tertiary-Quaternary sequences are well exposed around the coastline of Gulf St Vincent.
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Record of the Mines of South Australia (4th edition). Brown H.Y.L. 1908
This publication is a detailed compilation of authentic early history mining operations in South Australia published in 1908. The first compilation which can be regarded as an authentic history of mining operations in South Australia is contained in the Royal South Australian Almanack for 1848, published by John Stephens, Hindley Street, Adelaide. The editor in his preface says, Altogether the Almanack for 1848 will form a compendious history of the present condition of South Australia; and as the information communicated has been collected from authentic sources, where such was practicable, it may safely be relied upon as substantially correct. The section is headed Mines and Mining Companies in South Australia. It has evidently been prepared with much care, and is written in a general spirit of breezy optimism which, although refreshingly cheerful, argues in some respects a certain lack of expert knowledge on the part of the compiler. It is very interesting, not only from the actual mining information it gives, but also from the association of the honored name.s of the first enterprising mining adventurers of South Australia. Regarding the various mines noted, the sanguine expectations entertained were in some cases, more than realised, in others they turned out failures, and in others again the ground still remains undeveloped. The old record is here republished in full (except the forms of share certificate), and the later information concerning the various mines will be found in proper order throughout the book.
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Silver and a Trace of Gold - A History of the Aclare Mine; Chilman, J.K. 1982
After placing the Aclare mine within its setting in the early mining history of the Kanmantoo and Callington districts, this historical account ranges widely, for the problems encountered during Aclare's period of operation plus the vicissitudes of its unfortunate entanglement with the Kangarilla mine are representative of, and throw light upon, many aspects of South Australian mining during the 19th century. This study pioneers industrial archaeology in South Australian mining history, and in compliance with the author's brief under Australian Heritage Commission funding, it records the historic mining relics still remaining in the area. But it also takes a personal look at the people concerned with the mines. As far as possible the author has avoided intruding into their story and has let them tell it in their own way by quoting them directly or by using the phraseology of their letters, diaries, reports and official records. They speak from personal involvement and show that, apart from technological advances, many things have not changed at all.
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South Australia's Mining Heritage; Selby, J.; Whitehead, J.H.; Dickinson, S.B.; Connell, J.E.; Hart, E.K.; Drew, G.J.; Horn, C.M.; Fradd, W.P.; Cumming, D.A.; Faull, J.; Mussared, P.; Carthew, B.; Carthew, S.J.; McCarthy, J.P. 1987
The celebrations which took place in 1986 to mark South Australia's Jubilee 150 served to focus attention all aspects of the State's Heritage. Until that time the sites and relics of South Australia's early mines had been generally neglected. Marked by the ruins of enginehouses and littered with the remains of the massive technology of the Industrial Revolution, these sites have now been recognised as containing the threads of a fascinating story. In the early days of settlement the economy of the Colony was based on land and farming. Droughts caused periods of economic depression which were alleviated by chance discoveries of gold, lead, silver, and copper ore. Some of the mines which were opened on the copper deposits were the largest in the world at that time and their names well known throughout mining circles. This book is a compilation of expert-written articles on all aspects of SA mining history, most of which were presented as papers at the first Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Seminar on Mining Heritage held in Adelaide on 25 March 1986.
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Stratigraphy, Palaeontology, Malacology - Papers in honour of Dr Nell Ludbrook; Lindsay, J.M. 1985
This Ludbrook Honour Volume, containing twenty-four scientific papers by Australian and overseas authors, has been compiled as a tribute to the work of Dr Ludbrook in the field of palaeontology. Nell joined SADM in 1952, where she worked until retirement in 1967. Since then she has been retained by the Department as a consultant in palaeontology. Her 1984 publication - Quaternary Molluscs in South Australia - (SADME Handbook no. 9) - is recognised as one of the finest publications of its type. A majority of the papers presented here deal with systematic palaeontology of the kind promoted by Dr Ludbrook in her work, and serve to reflect the relationship between accurate taxonomy and its increasingly valuable applications in biostratigraphy. The Honour Volume has been printed with both colour and black duotone specimen photographs to enhance the excellent papers and help produce a quality publication.
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The Silver Trail - A Guide to the Heritage of Broken Hill. Drew G.J. 1991
A pictorial history of Australia's longest-lived mining town and its famous mines, detailing the main points of interest along a number of excellent heritage and walking trails. Broken Hill is Australia 's longest-lived mining city. Its massive ore body, formed about 1800 million years ago, has proved to be the world 's largest silver-lead-zinc mineral deposit. The orebody is shaped like a boomerang plunging into the earth at its ends and outcropping in the centre. The protruding tip of the orebody stood out as a jagged rocky ridge amongst undulating plain country on either side. This was known as the broken hill by early pastoralists. The Broken Hill ore body was first pegged in 1883 by a German-born boundary rider Charles Rasp and his syndicate of seven station workers. The deposit was known initially as the hill of mullock but this changed dramatically in 1884 when extremely rich silver ore was discovered. By 1888, Broken Hill's population had leapt to 11 000 and Silverton was virtually deserted. The orebody has had a s ignifi cant influence on the Australian economy as the initial profits were used in the transformation of Australia from a country dependent on wheat and wool to a nation strong in secondary industries. Broken Hill has also been the scene of many major developments in mining and metallurgical technology, and an important location in the history of the union movement in Australia. Remains of all periods of Broken Hill's history exist today. These include mining activity, transport, services, commercial activity and housing. This heritage is of national signi ficance. Today the city of Broken Hill is a living museum where visitors can experience both past and present.
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