Blinman Mine. Drew G.J. 1996
A guide to the walking trail within the historic Blinman mine site. The Blinman Mine was the largest producer and longest operating mine in the Flinders Ranges. There were four main periods of mining activity between 1862 and 1907, which resulted in a total production of 10 000 tonnes of copper metal from 200 000 tonnes of ore. Today the site is on an historic reserve managed by the Blinman Progress Association. The walking trail was established by the former Department of Mines and Energy (now the Department for Energy and Mining SA)
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Broken Hill Heritage Trails. 1991
At the end of last century, Broken Hill was famous world wide for the richness and size of its orebody. It was one of the largest mining areas in the world and supported a city of nearly 30 000, the sixth largest in Australia. After 1900, wealth from the mine was used to further the industrial expansion of Australia. Smelters, steelworks, coal mines and chemical factories were established from the profits of Broken Hill. The city expanded and became a centre of communications for the remote area. Today, the remains of all periods of Broken Hill's history may be seen around the township and mine areas. the city is a living museum where visitors can experience the excitement of the past along with self-guided heritage trails..
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Burra Mine. Drew G.J. 1995
A guide to the walking trail within the historic Burra mine site. Burra Mine was world famous for the richness of its copper ores and for the first ten years of its life was the largest mine in Australia. Wealth from the mine made fortunes for many of its original shareholders and its discovery marked the beginning of a period of unprecedented growth and prosperity for South Australia
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Glen Osmond Mines. Drew G.J. 1990
A guide to the walking trail within the historic Glen Osmond mine site. Glen Osmond mines consist of a number of individual mines, the most famous being Wheal Gawler ('wheal' is Cornish for mine). Wheal Watkins and Glen Osmond mine. Historically the Glen Osmond group of mines is of national significance. Wheal Gawler was the first metal mine in Australia and produced the first mineral exports from this country.
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Gold at Jupiter Creek. Drew G.J. 1994
A guide to the walking trail within the historic gold diggings at Jupiter Creek. Jupiter Creek was the first major gold discovery only 6 km from Adelaide at Chapmans Gully near Echunga. By the turn of the century the Echunga Goldfields had become South Australia's major producer of gold, mainly won from an area extending from the initial find at Chapman's Gully southwards down Long Gully to Jupiter Creek. The Jupiter Creek diggings has an estimated production of between 25 000 and 50 000 ounces of gold.
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Kapunda Mine. Drew G.J. 1990
A guide to the walking trail within the historic Kapunda mine site. Kapunda Mine was the first successful metal mine in Australia and, together with Burra, contributed to the Colony's recovery from economic crisis in the early 1840s, it has also made a major contribution to South Australia's Cornish heritage. In 1842, Francis Dutton discovered green copper ore while searching for stray sheep. He discussed the find with his neighbour, Captain Charles Bagot, who was already aware of the lode. As neither man owned the land, Dutton and Bagot purchased a section around the outcrop in 1843. By 1851 Kapunda was a prosperous mining town of more than 2000 people, but the Victorian gold rush severely affected its population and the mine closed until 1855. After this, the mine developed rapidly, reaching peak production in 1857.
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Almanda Silver Mine
A guide to the walking trail within the historic Almanda Silver mine site located in the Scott Creek Conservation Park. The interpretive walking trail was established in conjunction with the Department of Mines and Energy. In the early 1840's Scott Creek was settled by the Hill and Mackereth families. Bullock drays hauling local produce to Adelaide broke off pieces of rock that were recognised to contain copper. In 1862 one of the shafts sunk contained ore which was assayed and was recognised to contain silver. The announcement of rich silver ore at Almanda Mine created a rush of claims in 1868 and 235 claims were pegged. Total production was 10,000 ounces from about 2000 tons of ore.
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Barossa Goldfield. Drew G.J. 1996
A guide to the walking trail within the historic Barossa Goldfield mine site. Alluvial gold was discovered by Job Harris In 1868 In Spike Gully 1.5 kilomelres north of the present park boundary. About 25 000 ounces (778 kg) were produced from the goldfield, between 1868 and 1871 mainly from alluvial workings. The goldfield extends northward for a dlstance of 4 kilometres from the South Para River and is now located partly on private property and partly on Para Wirra Recreation Park. The trail is within the park which is managed by the National Parks and Wildlife Service. and was established in conjunction with the Department of Mines and Energy. Within a week of the first discoveries In early October 1868 about 2 000 people had rushed the area a block of unsold Crown Land was proclaimed an official goldfield and a Warden of Goldfields and police trooper were dispatched to issue gold licences and settle disputes. At its height within the first few weeks, the rush attracted up to 4000 people.
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Moonta Mines. Drew, G.J. 1991
A guide to the walking trail within the Moonta historic mine site. In 1861, a shepherd, Patrick Ryan, discovered traces of copper in earth burrowed out of a wombat hole on the pastoral lease of W.W Hughes. The discovery was made in a patch of dense scrub known by aboriginals as Moonta-Moontera. Two parties subsequently applied for mining leases over the discovery, but Hughes was eventually successful. Hughes formed the Tipara Mining Association (later the Moonta Mining Co.) and began operations in late 1861, causing a rush of miners from the Burra and Wallaroo mines.
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Talisker Silver Lead Mine. Drew G.J. 1993
A guide to the walking trail within the historic Talisker Silver-Lead Mine site. Small deposits of silver·lead ore are widely distributed through the Mount Lofty and Flinders Ranges. Historically the one at Glen Osmond, near Adelaide, is the most significant as the site of Australia's first metal mine. But Talisker was also one of the largest producers of silver and lead In a colony whose early mining history was dominated by copper. Talisker Mine and its associated town of Silverton were Cornish in influence during their period of principal activity between 1862 and 1872 and the area was very much another 'little Cornwall'. The mine ruins illustrate typical mid·19th century Cornish mining and are processing techniques and are an important remnant of South Australia's heritage. The mine is located in a conservation park managed by the National Parks and Wildlife Service and is listed on the Register of State Heritage Items.
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Discovering Historic Burra, South Australia
Burra was the first surveyed mining town in Australia and by 1851, was Australia's largest inland town. Its famed 'Monster Mine' was the largest metal mine in Australia up to 1860. The influence of Burra on the economy of South Australia and on mining in Australia gives the town and mine considerable historic importance to all Australians. Burra has survived as one of Australia's most significant historic towns dating from the country's first mining era, which took place in South Australia between 1841 and 1851. The townships and mine sites of Burra, with their magnificent collection of historic buildings, provide a comprehensive record of the methods and lifestyles of a nineteenth century mining community. The town of Burra is on the Register of the National Estate and many of its buildings are on the List of State Heritage Items.
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Discovering Historic Kadina. Drew G.J. 1990
History of the town and mine and main points of interest along the Kadina heritage and walking trails. Includes numerous current and historic photographs and a detailed Heritage Trail map. The discovery of rich copper deposits, at Kapunda in 1842 and Burra in 1845, added financial stability to an almost bankrupt colony and, by 1850, South Australia was one of the world's leading copper producers. That position was maintained with the discovery of copper deposits at Wallaroo in 1859 and Moonta in 1861. These mines were worked by separate companies until 1890, when they amalgamated to form the Wallaroo and Moonta Mining and Smelting Co. Ltd. These mines were on large, rich deposits which were worked continuously for more than 60 years. The township of Kadina, which abuts the former Wallaroo Mine, and the nearby towns of Moonta and Wallaroo, were established as a direct result of copper mining in the early 1860s. Wallaroo became a port and smelting town and served both Moonta and Wallaroo mines. The three towns form a triangle, now commonly called The Copper Triangle. By 1875, the district had a population of about 20 000, predominantly Cornish immigrants and their descendants. In the 1860s, the area was covered with dense mallee which was quickly denuded for firewood and mine timbers. This was aggravated by clearance for agriculture in the 1870s and 1880s and, within 30 years, the district was a treeless plain. The closure of the mines in 1923 led to a rapid decline in the mining population but Kadina has survived as an agricultural, commercial and administrative centre.
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Discovering Historic Kapunda. Drew G.J. and Jones J. 1988
History of the town and mine, and main points of interest along the Kapunda heritage and walking trails. Includes numerous current and historic photographs and a detailed Heritage Trail map. The name Kapunda is after the Aboriginal term 'cappie oonda', which refers to a spring. The Kapunda Mine was the first successful metal mine in Australia and, together with Burra, saved the infant colony of South Australia from economic crisis in the 1840s. It led to the establishment of one of the first mining towns in Australia. During the nineteenth century, Kapunda was one of the major towns of South Australia. In 1871, with a population of 2273, the town was more populous than Gawler and Glenelg, and had only about 200 fewer residents than Port Adelaide. At that time, Kapunda was the centre of a prosperous agricultural region; it was the location of several engineering and implement-making firms, and above all, it was a thriving mining town.
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Discovering Historic Moonta. Drew G.J. 1991
Includes plan, interpretive descriptions and historic photographs of sites along the Moonta Heritage Trail. Includes numerous current and historic photographs and a detailed Heritage Trail map. The discovery of copper ore near Kadina in 1859 was followed by a second discovery in 1861 about 15 kilometres to the south. These discoveries led to the formation of the Moonta and Wallaroo mining companies which eventually amalgamated in 1890. The Moonta Mine developed rapidly and, in 1863, the town of Moonta was established. The Corporation of Moonta was proclaimed in 1872 and, by 1875, the district had a population of about 12,000 making it the largest centre outside Adelaide. The closure of the mine in 1923 led to a rapid decline in population, particularly in the mines area where many houses were left to ruin or were demolished. Moonta, however, survived as an agricultural and service centre. Since the 1970s, there has been a resurgence in trade due to the needs of the tourism industry. The mine attracted a large population of Cornish miners and the Cornish influence was very strong. Today, Moonta has a rich Cornish heritage which has resulted in the area being named Australia's Little Cornwall.
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Discovering Historic Wallaroo. Drew G.J. 1989
History of the town, smelters and port, and main points of interest along the Wallaroo heritage and walking trails. Includes numerous current and historic photographs and a detailed Heritage Trail map. From 1861 until 1923, Wallaroo was the port for the mineral produce of the mines of Australia's Little Cornwall. Until the establishment of lead smelters at Port Pirie in the 1890s, it was the principal port on Spencer Gulf. The first jetty was constructed in 1861 as part of the contract to build a tramway to the Wallaroo Mine. The port soon became one of the busiest in the State as ships brought cargoes of timber, coal, machinery and food supplies for the mines and towns and left laden with copper ore and ingots and later wool and wheat. Wallaroo is still a major exporting port for grain. Wallaroo was also the location of large smelting works where ore from both the Wallaroo and Moonta mines was smelted from 1861 until closure of the mines in 1923. The smelting works employed a large number of Welsh smelter men which gave the town a distinctive Welsh flavour, as the Welsh language was used in the town for many years. By 1865, the population of Wallaroo was about 3000. This increased to 4000 by the early 1900s and reached a peak of about 5000 residents in the early 1920s. When the smelting works closed after 62 years of continuous operation, it had a major impact on the local community. Hundreds left the town; some gravitated to agriculture and others to the wharf or the chemical works. The population of the town is now about 2200.
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Discover South Australia's Mining Heritage Trails. Drew G.J. 1998
Free Brochure - Take a trip back through a significant era of Australia's mining history in the Mount Lofty and Flinders Ranges of South Australia. Recapture the romance and adventure of Australia's first mining era in this picturesque landscape, which still bears the evidence of mining activity. Two main highways link Adelaide with the most distant sites at Broken Hill and in the Flinders Ranges. The drive between these locations takes five to six hours but allow a full day or more to visit sites en route. Allow a full day at Broken Hill and several days in the Flinders Ranges. The main highways are sealed but roads in the Flinders Ranges and access roads to some mining sites are gravelled. A number of sites are within easy reach of Adelaide and can be visited on half or full-day excursions, although the Moonta–Wallaroo and Burra areas are more suited to overnight stops.
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Brachina Gorge Geological Trail. Drew G.J. 1994
This colourful and spectacular gorge has long attracted visitors to marvel at its beauty. The gorge was used from 1862 as a commercial route for cartage of copper ore from the Blinman Mine, 35 km to the north. It provided access to the western plains until a road through Parachilna Gorge was established in the 1880s to connect Blinman to the northern railway. The gorge today provides a pathway through the rock sequence which reveals their history — a corridor through time.
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Geology of Barossa Valley
The Barossa Valley, Australia's premier red wine producing region, is located 50 km northeast of Adelaide, within the Mount Lofty Ranges, and is characterised by a unique geological history. Here, an ancient valley was infilled by river sediments over a 30 million year period that lasted till the end of the Ice Age (Pleistocene Epoch). The valley, named ‘Barrosa’ in the late 1830s by Colonel William Light, Surveyor General of South Australia, is home not only to some of the great Shiraz wines of the world but also to one of the world's best selling wines. It was also home to German migrant Johannes Menge, a geologist, linguist and scholar who, from his cave-home at the junction of Jacob Creek with the North Para River, predicted the viticultural success of the area. It was also home to the Lutherans who planted the first vineyards near their settlements at Langmeil and Bethany in 1844.
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Geology of Flinders Ranges National Park
The Flinders Ranges present a magnificent record of Earth history. With careful observations, the rocks displayed in the rugged ranges and colourful, gum-lined gorges can be read like a book, taking us on a long journey through time. This history is represented in a succession of rock layers, now tilted and eroded, and hence accessible at the Earth’s surface. The layers consist of different types of mainly sedimentary rocks, each deposited under different conditions of environment and sediment supply. These rock layers, termed formations, are each up to hundreds of metres thick. They record repeated advances and retreats of the sea and changes in climate, including two major ice ages.
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Geology of the McLaren Vale Wine Region. 2010
Includes detailed geological map of the region and locations for local wineries. The McLaren Vale Wine Region is located 30 km south of Adelaide and lies mainly within two triangular basins. The result of decades of diligent investigation by curious geological scholars, this map provides a key to the complex, constantly unfolding links between geology and modern wine flavours. The time gap between this ancient geology and modern human endeavour is breathtaking to behold. Some of the rocks discussed here are from ages when multicellular life was beginning to evolve, aeons before today’s veil of agriculture was cast over the landscape. This document will help to explain how different geological terranes influence wine flavour.
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Guide to the Geology of Kangaroo Island.
Kangaroo Island comprises a diverse association of both rocks and landforms that reflect a long and varied geological history. The geological record on the Island, though fragmented and incomplete, extends from the early Neoproterozoic, approximately 1 billion years ago, to the present.
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Geology of the South East. Selby J. 1989
This South East was covered by a shallow sea for nearly half of the Tertiary Period. shallow sea for nearly half of the Tertiary Period. Within the sea was an archipelago, or group of islands, consisting of ancient granitic rocks. These formed part of the original crust of the Gondwana supercontinent and are about 450 million years old. The region between Kingston and Keith is underlain by a shallow ridge of these crustal rocks which still protrude above the modern land surface as isolated rocky hills. The granite has been weathered into groups of large boulders known as 'tors'. These have been weathered and sculptured into varied shapes characteristic of granitic rocks in many parts of the world. The flat plains separating the tors are underlain in places by marine rocks and sediments indicating that at times the Tertiary sea covered much of the area.
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Hallett Cove Geological Trail. Drew G.J. 2011
Hallett Cove is one of the best known geological sites in Australia, because of the evidence of an ancient glaciation discovered in 1875 by Professor Ralph Tate from the University of Adelaide. The polished and striated glacial pavements, and sediments associated with the glaciation, are now known throughout the world. The area has been declared a Geological Monument by the Geological Society of Australia and placed on both the South Australian Heritage Register and the former Register of the National Estate because of its significance for educational and scientific purposes. Conservation of the site to protect the glacial pavements commenced in 1960 with acquisition of a strip of coastline, named the Sandison Reserve, by the National Trust. When subdivision for housing threatened the site, the State and Federal Governments acquired and purchased adjoining land which was dedicated as the Hallett Cove Conservation Park in 1976.
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Corridors Through Time
Rocks which today form the Flinders Ranges were once sediments deposited in a shallow sea. This happened between 1100 and 500 million years ago when a trough called the Adelaide Geosyncline extended across South Australia. A thickness of up to 24 km of sediments was laid down in this trough as it sank slowly into the earth's crust. These bear a record of ancient environments and life forms stretching over hundreds of millions of years. At the end of the Cambrian Period - around 500 million years ago - the rocks were buckled and pushed up into a mountain chain much higher than we see today. Subsequent erosion by wind and water has worn the mountains down to their roots leaving behind what we now call the Flinders Ranges - one of the world's great geological monuments.
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Sleeps Hill Quarries. Drew G.J. 1990
A guide to the walking trail within the historic Sleeps Hill quarries. The quarries are on a reserve managed by the Mitcham City Council, and an interpretive walking trail has been established in conjunction with the Department of Mines and Energy. Spectacular ripple-marked surfaces are preserved in the rocks and large-scale folds reflect the intensity of the forces which deformed the rocks nearly 500 million years ago. Twelve quarries were developed near Sleeps Hill in two separate beds of quartzite (the upper and lower quartzites), which crop out on both sides of a steep valley overlooking Adelaide. The lower outcrops were exploited first and operations gradually moved eastwards and higher up the valley. The quarries are on a reserve managed by the Mitcham City Council, and an interpretive walking trail has been established in conjunction with the Department of Mines and Energy. Spectacular ripple-marked surfaces are preserved in the rocks and large-scale folds reflect the intensity of the forces which deformed the rocks nearly 500 million years ago. Quarries were opened in 1916 and were taken over by Adelaide Quarries Ltd in 1919. During the 1920s, the quarries were one of the leading producers of crushed rock in South Australia and employed up to 100 men. The rock was used as aggregate and sand for a variety of construction purposes. After 1930, the Depression seriously curtailed operations, and quarrying eventually ceased about 1950.
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